1. High-precision Optical Time Domain Reflectometer(ODTR)
OTDR technology through sending a test signal in the measured line while monitoring signal in the line of reflection phase and intensity. If the signal through the cable encounter mutation of an impedance, part or all of the signals will be reflected back, the reflected signal delay, size and polarity indicate the discontinuity position and feature of the special impedance in the cable.
2. Split Pairs
UTP(Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is two insulated Copper Cable twisted together to each other by a certain density, which reduces the degree of signal interference, each wire in the transmission of radiation waves are offset by radio waves from the other line.
The so-called split pairs is the original two pairs are opened and yet again to reform a new pair. Because when this failure occurs, the end-to-end connectivity is good, so use a multimeter or hand tool such tools can not check it out. Only with a dedicated cable tester to check it out. Since crosstalk on the related lines of no kink, so online pairs when signal through will produce a high near-end crosstalk (NEXT).
Split pairs normally also be used, but often crosstalk index is large, only to run in the 10M application, can not achieve the 100M application.
3. The Standard Twisted Pair Terminations
Twisted pair eight lines are inserted into the plug (or termination) according to the standard. There are two termination criteria: EIA/TIA T568A/T568B, no essential difference between them, but the difference between color. The natural problem of termination is to ensure that: 1, 2 are a pair; 3, 6 are a pair; 4, 5 are a pair; 7, 8 are a pair. Note: Do not one cable end with T568A, but the other end with T568B. The mix use of T568A/T568B is a special connection method of cross connection. Projects more use T568B wire method.
In Ethernet, Pin1, Pin2 is a twisted pair responsible for network data transmission, Pin3, pin6 is a twisted pair responsible for network data reception, so 1, 2 a pair, 3, 6 a pair, 4, 5 a pair, 7, 8 a pair, it is a must, and not 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 pairs, so called split pairs, will lead to serious signal leakage.
4. Wire Map
Ware Map: This is to confirm the integrity of link connection, mainly to check each pair of 8-core Twisted Pair Cable whether meets the required standards EIA/TIA- 568A/568B, whether the wire at both ends of cable is matching. If wrong, there are five cases include open circuit, short circuit, crossed pairs, reversed pair and split pairs.
● Open circuit: refers to the phenomenon of line off, generally due to bad crystal head cable connection, common with the cable test equipment can locate the fault point.
● Short circuit: refers to one or more wires touch each other in a metal core, resulting in a short circuit.
● Crossed pairs: refers to wire at both ends error in the routing process, which is one end with 568A and the other end with the 568B, usually such wire method used in network equipments level, or network cards connection, but as a general wiring to say, as long as the two ends of the wire method consistent, as for the module wire method can refer to the color above.
● Reversed pairs: this error is due to both ends of a pair line connected to the positive and negative error, is generally believed that the odd line number for the positive electrode, the even line as the negative electrode, for example, 568B Pin1 orange white lines to the first pair of positive, Pin2 Orange Line is negative, it can form a direct current loop, reverse connection is positive and negative confused in the same pair line.
● Split pairs: this is one of the common wire error, which is not strictly comply with wire standard, it is specified in the standard that 1, 2 is the first pair, 3, 6, is the second pair, if 3, 4 into the second pair will cause large signal leakage, which produces NEXT (near end crosstalk), this will cause the user’s Internet difficulties or indirect interrupts, especially in the 1000Mbps network it is particularly obvious.